An oxidizer is a type of chemical which a fuel requires to burn. Most types of burning on Earth use oxygen, which is prevalent in the atmosphere. However in space there is no atmosphere to provide oxygen or other oxidizers do rockets need to carry up their own oxidizers. Usually, they are carried in a different tank than the fuel and released in the proper proportion with the fuel when the rocket is fired.OxidizerAn oxidizer is defined as a substance that oxidizes another substance: a chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials. It may be a substance such as a chlorate, permanganate, and inorganic peroxide or nitrate that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion of organic matter [1,3]. Chemically, an oxidizer accepts electrons and the fuel supplied to them. In the context of high-energy materials, it is an important ingredient of propellants that releases oxygen to enable the combustion of a fuel.Most types of burning on Earth use oxygen, which is prevalent in the atmosphere. However, there is no oxygen source in space, so rockets need to carry their own oxidizers. In liquid propellants they are carried in a different tank to the fuel and released in the proper proportion with the fuel when the rocket is fired, while solid propellants contain oxidizer and a fuel together.Thermal OxidizersThermal oxidizers are used to effectively destroy liquid and organic wastes containing organic compounds. The oxidation reaction is similar to normal combustion except that the concentration of the pollutants is too low to create a flame front by themselves. The four major types of thermal oxidizer are direct-flame or afterburner, recuperative, regenerative, and catalytic (Goldshmid, 2005).Thermal oxidizers achieve their high efficiency through the intensive mixing of the pollutants with air and fuel, high turbulence, and long residence time. If they generate sufficient heat they can create steam from a waste heat boiler.In waste handling facilities, activated carbon adsorption units can be overheated to ignition temperatures. These systems should be protected by detonation arresters and high bed temperature shutdowns.AbstractComposite propellant based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and ammonium perchlorate (AP) has become the workhorse propellant for modern-day missiles and space vehicles. AP is the main ingredient and is used as an oxidizer in composite propellant and accounts for approximately 70%–80% of the composition. AP plays a vital role in tailoring the burning rate of the propellant using multimodal particle size distributions and provides strength to the propellant as filler. AP is ground to different particle sizes for use in propellant formulations to achieve different burn rates and higher solid loading. Grinding of AP leads to generation of a large surface area with excess surface energy and there is a tendency for agglomeration, segregation, caking, bridging, and no flow in silo/bin/hopper, stockpile, feeder, chute, conveyor, etc. The propensity of the problems increases with increase in the time gap between grinding and mixing operations (with all propellant ingredients). Here, various grades (particle size fractions) of AP were used in propellant formulations and characterized with respect to physical and flow properties. Physical properties that were studied were particle size, shape, density, and moisture. Particle size distribution was determined using the sieve analysis and laser light scattering technique. Powder flowability was measured using shear strength, angle of repose, and tapped-to-bulk density measurements. The values of Hausner ratio and Carr index are highest for ultrafine AP, indicating that it is a highly compressible powder, whereas Hausner ratio and Carr index are lowest for the coarse AP, which indicates its free-flowing behavior.CPI is a leading supplier of innovative and efficient industrial air pollution control solutions. We provide customers with emission control solutions to their most complex Volatile Organic Compound VOC, NOx, and Odor pollution challenges. Our equipment is also at work meeting energy conservation strategies and minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.